All Red Hat Linux documents are copyrighted to Red Hat Inc.

Chapter 4. The sysconfig Directory

The /etc/sysconfig/ directory is where a variety of system configuration files for Red Hat Linux are stored.

This chapter outlines some of the files found in the /etc/sysconfig/ directory, their function, and their contents. The information in this chapter is not intended to be complete, as many of these files have a variety of options that are only used in very specific or rare circumstances.

4.1. Files in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory

The following files are normally found in the /etc/sysconfig/ directory:

  • amd

  • apmd

  • arpwatch

  • authconfig

  • cipe

  • clock

  • desktop

  • dhcpd

  • firstboot

  • gpm

  • harddisks

  • hwconf

  • i18n

  • identd

  • init

  • ipchains

  • iptables

  • irda

  • keyboard

  • kudzu

  • mouse

  • named

  • netdump

  • network

  • ntpd

  • pcmcia

  • radvd

  • rawdevices

  • redhat-config-securitylevel

  • redhat-config-users

  • redhat-logviewer

  • samba

  • sendmail

  • soundcard

  • spamassassin

  • squid

  • tux

  • ups

  • vncservers

  • xinetd

NoteNote
 

If some of the files listed are not present in the /etc/sysconfig/ directory, then the corresponding program may not be installed.

4.1.1. /etc/sysconfig/amd

The /etc/sysconfig/amd file contains various parameters used by amd, which allow for the automatic mounting and unmounting of file systems.

4.1.2. /etc/sysconfig/apmd

The /etc/sysconfig/apmd file is used by apmd as a configuration for what power settings to start/stop/change on suspend or resume. It is configured to turn on or off apmd at boot time, depending on whether the hardware supports Advanced Power Management (APM) or whether or not the user has configured the system to use it. The apm daemon is a monitoring program that works with power management code within the Linux kernel. It capable of alerting users to low battery power on laptops and other power-related settings.

4.1.3. /etc/sysconfig/arpwatch

The /etc/sysconfig/arpwatch file is used to pass arguments to the arpwatch daemon at boot time. The arpwatch daemon maintains a table of Ethernet MAC addresses and their IP address pairings. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the arpwatch man page. By default, this file sets the owner of the arpwatch process to the user pcap.

4.1.4. /etc/sysconfig/authconfig

The /etc/sysconfig/authconfig file sets the kind of authorization to be used on the host. It contains one or more of the following lines:

  • USEMD5=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yes — MD5 is used for authentication.

    • no — MD5 is not used for authentication.

  • USEKERBEROS=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yes — Kerberos is used for authentication.

    • no — Kerberos is not used for authentication.

  • USELDAPAUTH=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yes — LDAP is used for authentication.

    • no — LDAP is not used for authentication.

4.1.5. /etc/sysconfig/clock

The /etc/sysconfig/clock file controls the interpretation of values read from the system hardware clock.

The correct values are:

  • UTC=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • true or yes — The hardware clock is set to Universal Time.

    • false or no — The hardware clock is set to local time.

  • ARC=<value>, where <value> is the following:

    • true or yes — The ARC console's 42-year time offset is in effect. This setting is only for ARC- or AlphaBIOS-based Alpha systems. Any other value indicates that the normal UNIX epoch is in use.

  • SRM=<value>, where <value> is the following:

    • true or yes — The SRM console's 1900 epoch is in effect. This setting is only for SRM-based Alpha systems. Any other value indicates that the normal UNIX epoch is in use.

  • ZONE=<filename> — The timezone file under /usr/share/zoneinfo that /etc/localtime is a copy of. The file contains information such as:

    ZONE="America/New York"

Earlier releases of Red Hat Linux used the following values (which are deprecated):

  • CLOCKMODE=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • GMT — The clock is set to Universal Time (Greenwich Mean Time).

    • ARC — The ARC console's 42-year time offset is in effect (for Alpha-based systems only).

4.1.6. /etc/sysconfig/desktop

The /etc/sysconfig/desktop file specifies the desktop manager to be run, such as:

DESKTOP="GNOME"

4.1.7. /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd

The /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd file is used to pass arguments to the dhcpd daemon at boot time. The dhcpd daemon implements the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and the Internet Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP). DHCP and BOOTP assign hostnames to machines on the network. For more information about what parameters are available in this file, see the dhcpd man page.

4.1.8. /etc/sysconfig/firstboot

Beginning with Red Hat Linux 8.0, the first time the system boots, the /sbin/init program calls the etc/rc.d/init.d/firstboot script, which in turn launches Setup Agent. This application allows the user to install the latest updates as well as additional applications and documentation.

The /etc/sysconfig/firstboot file tells the Setup Agent application not to run on subsequent reboots. To run it the next time the system boots, remove /etc/sysconfig/firstboot and execute chkconfig --level 5 firstboot on.

4.1.9. /etc/sysconfig/gpm

The /etc/sysconfig/gpm file is used to pass arguments to the gpm daemon at boot time. The gpm daemon is the mouse server which allows mouse acceleration and middle-click pasting. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the gpm man page. By default, it sets the mouse device to /dev/mouse.

4.1.10. /etc/sysconfig/harddisks

The /etc/sysconfig/harddisks file tunes the hard drive(s). The administrator can also use /etc/sysconfig/hardiskhd[a-h] to configure parameters for specific drives.

WarningWarning
 

Do not make changes to this file without careful consideration. By changing the default values, it is possible to corrupt all of the data on the hard drive(s).

The /etc/sysconfig/harddisks file may contain the following:

  • USE_DMA=1, where setting this value to 1 enables DMA. However, with some chipsets and hard drive combinations, DMA can cause data corruption. Check with the hard drive documentation or manufacturer before enabling this option.

  • Multiple_IO=16, where a setting of 16 allows for multiple sectors per I/O interrupt. When enabled, this feature reduces operating system overhead by 30-50%. Use with caution.

  • EIDE_32BIT=3 enables (E)IDE 32-bit I/O support to an interface card.

  • LOOKAHEAD=1 enables drive read-lookahead.

  • EXTRA_PARAMS= specifies where extra parameters can be added.

4.1.11. /etc/sysconfig/hwconf

The /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file lists all the hardware that kudzu detected on the system, as well as the drivers used, vendor ID, and device ID information. The kudzu program detects and configures new and/or changed hardware on a system. The /etc/sysconfig/hwconf file is not meant to be manually edited. If edited, devices could suddenly show up as being added or removed.

4.1.12. /etc/sysconfig/i18n

The /etc/sysconfig/i18n file sets the default language, any supported languages, and the default system font. For example:

LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
SUPPORTED="en_US.UTF-8:en_US:en"
SYSFONT="latarcyrheb-sun16"

4.1.13. /etc/sysconfig/identd

The /etc/sysconfig/identd file is used to pass arguments to the identd daemon at boot time. The identd daemon returns the username of processes with open TCP/IP connections. Some services on the network, such as FTP and IRC servers, will complain and cause slow responses if identd is not running. But in general, identd is not a required service, so if security is a concern, do not run it. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the identd man page. By default, the file contains no parameters.

4.1.14. /etc/sysconfig/init

The /etc/sysconfig/init file controls how the system will appear and function during the boot process.

The following values may be used:

  • BOOTUP=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • BOOTUP=color means the standard color boot display, where the success or failure of devices and services starting up is shown in different colors.

    • BOOTUP=verbose means an old style display, which provides more information than purely a message of success or failure.

    • Anything else means a new display, but without ANSI-formatting.

  • RES_COL=<value>, where <value> is the number of the column of the screen to start status labels. Defaults to 60.

  • MOVE_TO_COL=<value>, where <value> moves the cursor to the value in the RES_COL line via the echo -en command.

  • SETCOLOR_SUCCESS=<value>, where <value> sets the color to a color indicating success via the echo -en command. The default color is set to green.

  • SETCOLOR_FAILURE=<value>, where <value> sets the color to a color indicating failure via the echo -en command. The default color is set to red.

  • SETCOLOR_WARNING=<value>, where <value> sets the warning color via the echo -en command. The default color is set to yellow.

  • SETCOLOR_NORMAL=<value>, where <value> resets the color to "normal" via the echo -en.

  • LOGLEVEL=<value>, where <value> sets the initial console logging level for the kernel. The default is 3; 8 means everything (including debugging); 1 means nothing except kernel panics. The syslogd daemon overrides this setting once started.

  • PROMPT=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yes — Enables the key check for interactive mode.

    • no — Disables the key check for interactive mode.

4.1.15. /etc/sysconfig/ipchains

The /etc/sysconfig/ipchains file contains information used by the ipchains initialization script when setting up the ipchains service.

This file is modified by typing the command /sbin/service ipchains save when valid ipchains rules are in place. Do not manually edit this file. Instead, use the /sbin/ipchains command to configure the necessary packet filtering rules and then save the rules to this file using /sbin/service ipchains save.

Use of ipchains to set up firewall rules is not recommended as it is deprecated and may disappear from future releases of Red Hat Linux. If a firewall is necessary, use iptables instead.

4.1.16. /etc/sysconfig/iptables

Like /etc/sysconfig/ipchains, the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file stores information used by the kernel to set up packet filtering services at boot time or whenever the service is started.

Do not modify this file by hand unless familiar with how to construct iptables rules. The easiest way to add rules is to use Security Level Configuration Tool (redhat-config-securitylevel), the /usr/sbin/lokkit command, or the GNOME Lokkit application to create a firewall. Using these applications automatically edit this file at the end of the process.

Rules can be created manually by using /sbin/iptables: then type /sbin/service iptables save to add the rules to the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file.

Once this file exists, any firewall rules saved in it persists through a system reboot or a service restart.

For more information on iptables see Chapter 16 iptables.

4.1.17. /etc/sysconfig/irda

The /etc/sysconfig/irda file controls how infrared devices on the system are configured at startup.

The following values may be used:

  • IRDA=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yesirattach will be run, which periodically checks to see if anything is trying to connect to the infrared port, such as another notebook computer trying to make a network connection. For infrared devices to work on the system, this line must be set to yes.

    • noirattach will not be run, preventing infrared device communication.

  • DEVICE=<value>, where <value> is the device (usually a serial port) that handles infrared connections.

  • DONGLE=<value>, where <value> specifies the type of dongle being used for infrared communication. This setting exists for people who use serial dongles rather than real infrared ports. A dongle is a device that is attached to a traditional serial port to communicate via infrared. This line is commented out by default because notebooks with real infrared ports are far more common than computers with add-on dongles.

  • DISCOVERY=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yes — Starts irattach in discovery mode, meaning it actively checks for other infrared devices. This needs to be turned on for the machine to be actively looking for an infrared connection (meaning the peer that does not initiate the connection).

    • no — Does not start irattach in discovery mode.

4.1.18. /etc/sysconfig/keyboard

The /etc/sysconfig/keyboard file controls the behavior of the keyboard. The following values may be used:

  • KEYBOARDTYPE=sun|pc, which is used on SPARCs only. sun means a Sun keyboard is attached on /dev/kbd, and pc means a PS/2 keyboard connected to a PS/2 port.

  • KEYTABLE=<file>, where <file> is the name of a keytable file.

    For example: KEYTABLE="us". The files that can be used as keytables start in /lib/kbd/keymaps/i386 and branch into different keyboard layouts from there, all labeled <file>.kmap.gz. The first file found beneath /lib/kbd/keymaps/i386 that matches the KEYTABLE setting is used.

4.1.19. /etc/sysconfig/kudzu

The /etc/sysconfig/kuzdu file triggers a safe probe of the system hardware by kudzu at boot time. A safe probe is one that disables serial port probing.

  • SAFE=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yeskuzdu does a safe probe.

    • nokuzdu does a normal probe.

4.1.20. /etc/sysconfig/mouse

The /etc/sysconfig/mouse file is used to specify information about the available mouse. The following values may be used:

  • FULLNAME=<value>, where <value> refers to the full name of the kind of mouse being used.

  • MOUSETYPE=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • imps2 — A generic USB wheel mouse.

    • microsoft — A Microsoft™ mouse.

    • mouseman — A MouseMan™ mouse.

    • mousesystems — A Mouse Systems™ mouse.

    • ps/2 — A PS/2 mouse.

    • msbm — A Microsoft™ bus mouse.

    • logibm — A Logitech™ bus mouse.

    • atibm — An ATI™ bus mouse.

    • logitech — A Logitech™ mouse.

    • mmseries — An older MouseMan™ mouse.

    • mmhittab — An mmhittab mouse.

  • XEMU3=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yes — The mouse only has two buttons, but three mouse buttons should be emulated.

    • no — The mouse already has three buttons.

  • XMOUSETYPE=<value>, where <value> refers to the kind of mouse used when X is running. The options here are the same as the MOUSETYPE setting in this same file.

  • DEVICE=<value>, where <value> is the mouse device.

In addition, /dev/mouse is a symbolic link that points to the actual mouse device.

4.1.21. /etc/sysconfig/named

The /etc/sysconfig/named file is used to pass arguments to the named daemon at boot time. The named daemon is a Domain Name System (DNS) server which implements the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) version 9 distribution. This server maintains a table of which hostnames are associated with IP addresses on the network.

Currently, only the following values may be used:

  • ROOTDIR="</some/where>", where </some/where> refers to the full directory path of a configured chroot environment under which named runs. This chroot environment must first be configured. Type info chroot for more information.

  • OPTIONS="<value>", where <value> is any option listed in the man page for named except -t. In place of -t, use the ROOTDIR line above.

For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the named man page. For detailed information on how to configure a BIND DNS server, see Chapter 12 Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND). By default, the file contains no parameters.

4.1.22. /etc/sysconfig/netdump

The /etc/sysconfig/netdump file is the configuration file for the /etc/init.d/netdump service. The netdump service sends both oops data and memory dumps over the network. In general, netdump is not a required service; only run it if absolutely necessary. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the netdump man page.

4.1.23. /etc/sysconfig/network

The /etc/sysconfig/network file is used to specify information about the desired network configuration. The following values may be used:

  • NETWORKING=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yes — Networking should be configured.

    • no — Networking should not be configured.

  • HOSTNAME=<value>, where <value> should be the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), such as hostname.expample.com, but can be whatever hostname is necessary.

    NoteNote
     

    For compatibility with older software that people might install (such as trn), the /etc/HOSTNAME file should contain the same value as here.

  • GATEWAY=<value>, where <value> is the IP address of the network's gateway.

  • GATEWAYDEV=<value>, where <value> is the gateway device, such as eth0.

  • NISDOMAIN=<value>, where <value> is the NIS domain name.

4.1.24. /etc/sysconfig/ntpd

The /etc/sysconfig/ntpd file is used to pass arguments to the ntpd daemon at boot time. The ntpd daemon sets and maintains the system clock to synchronize with an Internet standard time server. It implements version 4 of the Network Time Protocol (NTP). For more information about what parameters are available for this file, point a browser at the following file: /usr/share/doc/ntp-<version>/ntpd.htm (where <version> is the version number of ntpd). By default, this file sets the owner of the ntpd process to the user ntp.

4.1.25. /etc/sysconfig/pcmcia

The /etc/sysconfig/pcmcia file is used to specify PCMCIA configuration information. The following values may be used:

  • PCMCIA=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yes — PCMCIA support should be enabled.

    • no — PCMCIA support should not be enabled.

  • PCIC=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • i82365 — The computer has an i82365-style PCMCIA socket chipset.

    • tcic — The computer has a tcic-style PCMCIA socket chipset.

  • PCIC_OPTS=<value>, where <value> is the socket driver (i82365 or tcic) timing parameters.

  • CORE_OPTS=<value>, where <value> is the list of pcmcia_core options.

  • CARDMGR_OPTS=<value>, where <value> is the list of options for the PCMCIA cardmgr (such as -q for quiet mode; -m to look for loadable kernel modules in the specified directory, and so on). Read the cardmgr man page for more information.

4.1.26. /etc/sysconfig/radvd

The /etc/sysconfig/radvd file is used to pass arguments to the radvd daemon at boot time. The radvd daemon listens to for router requests and sends router advertisements for the IP version 6 protocol. This service allows hosts on a network to dynamically change their default routers based on these router advertisements. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the radvd man page. By default, this file sets the owner of the radvd process to the user radvd.

4.1.27. /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices

The /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file is used to configure raw device bindings, such as:

/dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sda1
/dev/raw/raw2 8 5

4.1.28. /etc/sysconfig/redhat-config-securitylevel

The /etc/sysconfig/redhat-config-securitylevel file contains all options chosen by the user the last time the Security Level Configuration Tool (redhat-config-securitylevel) was run. Users should not modify this file by hand. For more information about Security Level Configuration Tool, see the chapter titled Basic Firewall Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

4.1.29. /etc/sysconfig/redhat-config-users

The /etc/sysconfig/redhat-config-users file is the configuration file for the graphical application, User Manager. Under Red Hat Linux this file is used to filter out system users such as root, daemon, or lp. This file is edited by the Preferences => Filter system users and groups pull-down menu in the User Manager application and should not be edited by hand. For more information on using this application, see the chapter called User and Group Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

4.1.30. /etc/sysconfig/redhat-logviewer

The /etc/sysconfig/redhat-logviewer file is the configuration file for the graphical, interactive log viewing application, Log Viewer. This file is edited by the Edit => Preferences pull-down menu in the Log Viewer application and should not be edited by hand. For more information on using this application, see the chapter called Log Files in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

4.1.31. /etc/sysconfig/samba

The /etc/sysconfig/samba file is used to pass arguments to the smbd and the nmbd daemons at boot time. The smbd daemon offers file sharing connectivity for Windows clients on the network. The nmbd daemon offers NetBIOS over IP naming services. For more information about what parameters are available for this file, see the smbd man page. By default, this file sets smbd and nmbd to run in daemon mode.

4.1.32. /etc/sysconfig/sendmail

The /etc/sysconfig/sendmail file allows messages to be sent to one or more recipients, routing the message over whatever networks are necessary. The file sets the default values for the Sendmail application to run. Its default values are to run as a background daemon and to check its queue once an hour in case something has backed up.

The following values may be used:

  • DAEMON=<value>, where <value> is one of the following boolean values:

    • yes — Sendmail should be configured to listen to port 25 for incoming mail. yes implies the use of Sendmail's -bd options.

    • no — Sendmail should not be configured to listen to port 25 for incoming mail.

  • QUEUE=1h which is given to Sendmail as -q$QUEUE. The -q option is not given to Sendmail if /etc/sysconfig/sendmail exists and QUEUE is empty or undefined.

4.1.33. /etc/sysconfig/soundcard

The /etc/sysconfig/soundcard file is generated by sndconfig and should not be modified. The sole use of this file is to determine what card entry in the menu to pop up by default the next time sndconfig is run. Sound card configuration information is located in the /etc/modules.conf file.

It may contain the following:

  • CARDTYPE=<value>, where <value> is set to, for example, SB16 for a Soundblaster 16 sound card.

4.1.34. /etc/sysconfig/spamassassin

The /etc/sysconfig/spamassassin file is used to pass arguments to the spamd daemon (a daemonized version of Spamassassin) at boot time. Spamassassin is an email spam filter application. For a list of available options, see the spamd man page. By default, it configures spamd to run in daemon mode, create user preferences, and auto-create whitelists.

For more information about Spamassassin, see Section 11.4.2.6 Spam Filters.

4.1.35. /etc/sysconfig/squid

The /etc/sysconfig/squid file is used to pass arguments to the squid daemon at boot time. The squid daemon is a proxy caching server for Web client applications. For more information on configuring a squid proxy server, use a Web browser to open the /usr/share/doc/squid-<version>/ directory (replace <version> with the squid version number installed on the system). By default, this file sets squid to start in daemon mode and sets the amount of time before it shuts itself down.

4.1.36. /etc/sysconfig/tux

The /etc/sysconfig/tux file is the configuration file for the Red Hat Content Accelerator (formerly known as TUX), the kernel-based Web server. For more information on configuring the Red Hat Content Accelerator, use a Web browser to open the /usr/share/doc/tux-<version>/tux/index.html (replace <version> with the version number of TUX installed on the system). The parameters available for this file are listed in /usr/share/doc/tux-<version>/tux/parameters.html.

4.1.37. /etc/sysconfig/ups

The /etc/sysconfig/ups file is used to specify information about any Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) connected to the system. A UPS can be very valuable for a Red Hat Linux system because it gives time to correctly shut down the system in the case of power interruption. The following values may be used:

  • SERVER=<value>, where <value> is one of the following:

    • yes — A UPS device is connected to the system.

    • no — A UPS device is not connected to the system.

  • MODEL=<value>, where <value> must be one of the following or set to NONE if no UPS is connected to the system:

    • apcsmart — An APC SmartUPS™ or similar device.

    • fentonups — A Fenton UPS™.

    • optiups — An OPTI-UPS™ device.

    • bestups — A Best Power™ UPS.

    • genericups — A generic brand UPS.

    • ups-trust425+625 — A Trust™ UPS.

  • DEVICE=<value>, where <value> specifies where the UPS is connected, such as /dev/ttyS0.

  • OPTIONS=<value>, where <value> is a special command that needs to be passed to the UPS.

4.1.38. /etc/sysconfig/vncservers

The /etc/sysconfig/vncservers file configures the way the Virtual Network Computing (VNC) server starts up.

VNC is a remote display system which allows users to view the desktop environment not only on the machine where it is running but across different networks on a variety of architectures.

It may contain the following:

  • VNCSERVERS=<value>, where <value> is set to something like "1:fred", to indicate that a VNC server should be started for user fred on display :1. User fred must have set a VNC password using vncpasswd before attempting to connect to the remote VNC server.

Note that when using a VNC server, communication with it is unencrypted, and so it should not be used on an untrusted network. For specific instructions concerning the use of SSH to secure the VNC communication, please read the information found at http://www.uk.research.att.com/vnc/sshvnc.html. To find out more about SSH, see Chapter 18 SSH Protocol or Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

4.1.39. /etc/sysconfig/xinetd

The /etc/sysconfig/xinetd file is used to pass arguments to the xinetd daemon at boot time. The xinetd daemon starts programs that provide Internet services when a request to the port for that service is received. For more information about the parameters available for this file, see the xinetd man page. For more information on the xinetd service, see Section 15.3 xinetd.

© Copyright 2003-2014 www.php-editors.com. The ultimate PHP Editor and PHP IDE site.